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Composition of Biological Molecules

What are biological molecules made of?  Select one of the categories of molecules listed below.  Click on the link and then view with the JaMM2 Aplet.  Make certain the Draw mode reads "Ball" and the Hydrogen box is selected. (See graphic below).  Perform a screen capture of the molecule and upload it to the collaborative photo album.  Record the number of each atom for the molecule in question in the form.  Complete the form for each molecule. Examine the statistics for the entire class. 
  • What can you conclude about the composition of biological molecules?
  • Are there significant differences between the composition of the various classes of biological molecules?

Amino Acids
  • Alanine   Alanine is a non-essential amino acid.
  • Arginine   Arginine is an amino acid with several important functions.
  • Cysteine   Cysteine is a sulfur containing, non-essential amino acid.
  • Glycine   Glycine is a non-essential amino acid that helps to convert potential toxic substances into
  • Histidine   Histidine is a non-essential amino acid, although it is sometimes essential for children.
  • isoleucine   isoleucine is a hydrophobic, nonpolar, essential amino acid.
  • Leucine   Leucine is an essential amino acid.
  • Lysine   Lysine is one of the 8 essential amino acids and is involved with calcium absorption.
  • Phenylalanine   An essential amino acid which aids in the biosynthesis of several neurotransmitters.
  • Valine   Valine is a hydrophobic c-β branched amino acid.
  • Fructose   Fructose is the primary sugar found in fruits.
  • Glucose   Glucose is the most common monosaccharide.
  • Lactose   Lactose is the only simple sugar that is produced by animals and is commonly found in
  • Maltose   Maltose is made from two glucose units and used in alcohol production.
  • Sucrose   Sucrose is mainly used as sweetener in foods and soft drinks.
  • Acetphen   Acetaminophen is the active ingredient in Tylenol.
  • Acetyl salicylic acid   Aspirin is an over-the-counter analgesic.
  • Caffeine   A stimulant found in drinks and used in pharmaceuticals.
  • Codeine   Codeine is the most widely used, naturally occurring narcotic in medical treatment.
  • Cocaine   A strong central nervous system stimulant that enhances alertness and restrains
  • Cortisone   Cortisone injections can be used to treat inflammation of the body.
  • Erythromycin   Erythromycin is an antibiotic that is used for several purposes.
  • Ibuprofen   Ibuprofen is a very popular drug used to assist in reducing inflammatory response.
  • Nutrasweet   Aspartame is a common artificial sweetener.
  • Nicotine   Nicotine is a chemical substance, known as a liquid alkaloid, found in tobacco leaves
  • Penicillin   Antiobiotic
  • Prozac   Fluoxetine, known as Prozac, is a SSRI-type antidepressant.
  • Saccharin   Saccharin is one of the oldest artificial sweeteners in use today.
  • Tetracycline   Tetracycline is a common antibiotic.
  • Valium   Diazepam is a compound that belongs to a group of benzodiazepine tranquilizers.
  • Abscisic acid   Abscisic acid is a naturally occurring hormone in plants.
  • Adrenaline   Adrenaline is a hormone synthesized in the adrenal medulla.
  • Estradiol   Estradiol is a sex hormone.
  • Melatonin   Melatonin is a hormone released according to the body's circadian rythm.
  • Progesterone   Progesterone is the pregnancy hormone secreted by the ovaries.
  • Testosterone   Testosterone is a hormone essential to both males and females.
Nucleic Acids
  • Adenine   Adenine is one of the two purine bases used in forming nucleotides DNA and RNA.
  • Adenosine   Adenosine is a purine nucleoside.
  • Guanine   Guanine is a purine base found in nucleic acids such as DNA and RNA.
  • Thymine   One of the two pyrimidine bases used in forming nucleotides of DNA and RNA.
  • Vitamin B1   Vitamin B1 is essential for the proper growth of mammals.
  • Vitamin B12   Vitamin B12 is a water-soluble nutritional supplement.
  • Vitamin C   Vitamin C is an essential nutrient that is used in many biochemical pathways
  • Vitamin D2   Vitamin D2 is used to promote healthy bones and teeth and is found in fortified milk.
  • Vitamin D3   Vitamin D3 is one of the most important biological regulators of calcium metabolism.
  • Vitamin E   Vitamin E can be used to prevent and treat arteriosclerosis.
  • Vitamin H   Vitamin H is water-soluble and belongs to the group of essential B vitamins.
  • Vitamin K1   Phylloquinone is often called vitamin K.
  • Vitamin K3   Menadione is vitamin K3.
Miscellaneous Molecules in Plants and Animals
  • Acetylcholine    Acetylcholine is a neurotransmitter.
  • Chlorophyll   Chlorophyll is the molecule that absorbs sunlight and is responsible
  • Cholesterol   Cholesterol is a steroid important to animal cell structure
  • Citric acid   Citric acid is a component of many types of fruits.
  • Collagen   Collagen composes twenty five percent of all protein in the human body.
  • Limonene   Limonene is one of the components in the fragrance of Lemons.
  • Pepsin   Pepsin is an acidic protease that acts within the digestive system.
  • Vanillin   Vanillin is the chief component giving vanilla its taste.